ISSN: 0970-938X (Print) | 0976-1683 (Electronic)

Biomedical Research

An International Journal of Medical Sciences


The changes in some inflammatory markers and biochemical aspects during smoking in males

Background: Smoking is one of a risk factor which can alter normal processes inside human and form
disease. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the changes in some immunological markers and
biochemical aspects during the smoking process. The immunological parameters; include (Tumor
necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin-17A (IL-17A)) as well as
erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). The physiological parameter; included lipid profile (Cholesterol,
triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), high density
lipoprotein (HDL)).
Methods: The sera were collected from 30 samples. The samples were separated into three groups. The
first group includes smokers during 5 years and the second group includes smokers during 10 years as
well as, one control (non-smokers) group. These tests were done on sample of thirty healthy males and
their ages were 20-30 years. Enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) technique was used to
measure cytokines levels while Westergren method was used to measure erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
The lipid profile was estimated by using enzymatic colorimetric method.
Results: There was an increase in levels of inflammatory cytokines and erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
The differences were significant (P<0.05) in the case of TNF-α, IFN-γ, however, it was not significant
in the case of IL-17A. The current study showed that the ESR level increased significantly (P<0.05) in
comparing with non-smokers during the smoking process. The concentration of the cholesterol,
triglycerides, (LDL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) were increased while the level of (HDL)
was decreased.
Conclusion: Smoking also attracts the inflammatory cells which lead to the release of inflammatory
cytokines. Smoking affects the levels of inflammatory markers and lipid profile where the
concentrations of them were changed.

Author(s): Ahmed Farhan Shallal
Abstract | Full-Text | PDF

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