Aim: To identify the association of mammographic breast density with breast cancer and its common risk factors in the context of Afghanistan.
Methods: A case-control study enrolled Afghan women, age 35-years and above who were referred to the Radiology Department of French Medical Institute for Mothers and Children. Of all participants (n=270), 71 had pathology proven breast malignancy labelled as cases and rest with normal/abnormal Mammograms but negative pathology report for malignancy were labelled as controls.
Results: Mammographic Breast Density (MBD) type B, C and D had greater likelihood to be diagnosed with breast cancer compared to MBD type A and this difference was statistically significant, P=0.025. The odds ratio of 10.057 suggests that participants with MBD type B, C and D were 10.057 times more likely to have a breast cancer diagnosis compared to MBD type A with 95% CI of (1.337-75.660). The association between MBD and age, parity, breast-feeding history, breast feeding number, menopausal status, passive smoking, and Body Mass Index (BMI) were statistically significant with the p value less than 0.05, whereas no statistically significant association was found between MBD and family history of breast cancer, active smoking, physical activity, Oral Contraceptive Pill (OCP) and Hormone ReplacementT herapy (HRT) usage.
Conclusion: Afghan women with higher types of MBD (B, C and D) are 10 times more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer compared to Afghan women with type A MBD. Age, BMI, parity, breast feeding history and number, menopausal status and passive smoking are associated with MBD.Author(s): Mursal Amini, Salma Rattani, Sayed Murtaza S Hofiani, Mer Mahmood Shah Hoshang