We aimed to evaluate the value of contrast-enhanced Computed Tomography (CT) imaging in analyzing the therapeutic effects of icotinib for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC). Forty-five patients with histologically proven NSCLC underwent contrast-enhanced CT scanning before and after therapy with icotinib. All the data were automatically analyzed, and changes in each parameter before and after therapy were compared. According to the therapeutic response based on the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors and 3-month follow-up evaluations, 26 of 45 patients received effective treatment and 19 patients who received ineffective treatment. The mean density and enhancement extent of lesions were not statistically different before treatment in patients who received effective treatment or in those who received ineffective treatment (P>0.05). After treatment, the mean density and enhancement extent of lesions for the 26 patients who received effective treatment were significantly reduced as compared to their respective pretreatment values (P=0.000). No significant difference was detected in any parameter before and after treatment for the 16 patients who received ineffective treatment (P>0.05). The mean density and enhancement extent of lesions in patients who received effective treatment were significantly decreased as compared to those who obtained ineffective treatment (P<0.05). In addition to size changes, tumor density, the degree of enhancement, and cavity changes found on contrast-enhanced CT scans were each associated with treatment response. Contrast-enhanced CT scans have significant value in determining the effect of icotinib in NSCLC patients.