Objectives: Composite resins should undergo attentive tests to specify their biocompatibility before they have contact with the teeth, regardless of physico-mechanical properties. Hence, this study has been carried out to assess the knowledge of potential cellular responses and biological effects of composite resins on three different cells after two different exposure times.
Methods: The composites Surefil SDR flow, Dentsply Caulk/ABD (SS), X-tra base flowable, Voco Cuxhaven Germany (XB), Venus Bulk Flow, Voco Cuxhaven Germany (VB), Filtek Bulk Flow, 3 M/ESPE-USA (FB), Tetric-Evo bulk flow, Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein (TE) were immersed into molds (Height: 4 mm, Width: 6 mm) and polymerized according to manufacturer's instructions. Human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs), cortical neuron cells (CNCs) and dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were inoculated into 24-well plates, separately. Then, the insert membranes with a 3 µm pore width compatible for plates were inserted and dental composite samples were added. The experimental procedures were performed after 24 h and 72 h. The cell viability of the cells was obtained from an MTT assay. Total antioxidant (TAS) and oxidant (TOS) status were examined by using real assay diagnostic kits. The dynamic process of apoptosis analysed by using annexin V-FITC staining with flow cytometry. Human beta defensins were assessed by RT-PCR. Lastly, supernatants were analysed for production of IL6, IL8 and IL10 cytokines.
Results: According to analysis of variance, there were significant differences between three cells. There was an increase in the cytotoxicity values in some groups after 72 h. A 24 h and 72 h experiment revealed that VB was the strongest cytotoxic agent, followed sequentially by XB and FB. Exposure of cells to the composites of SS, XB, VB, FB and TE for 24 h reduced the cell number approximately by 6, 24, 35.6, 28.6 and 1%. A 72 h reduced the cell number for 25.3, 31.6, 40.6, 50.3 and 8%, respectively, by SS, XB, VB, FB and TE.
Conclusions: It can be concluded that from all these data, if the three cell cultures are compared, cortical neuron cells were more sensitive to the resin composites.