Diabetes mellitus type 2 is a socially significant disease due to its high incidence rate on a global scale. The causes are rooted mainly in the changes in eating habits, the sedentary way of life, the low energy expenditure leading to obesity, the ageing population, as well as urbanization. Diabetes mellitus type 2 is a chronic, lifelong condition that requires continuous complex health care and the motivated involvement of a well-trained patient in order for the risk of long-term complications to be reduced. The first step in the treatment entails a change in the way of life. The most significant preconditions in the strategy for prophylaxis and treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 and the long-term complications include systematic medicamentous therapy in combination with a good control of the condition, physical rehabilitation and physiotherapy with an active exercise routine, strict control of the body weight and healthy eating habits through a balanced diet, as well as limiting any bad habits for the purpose of optimizing the patient’s way of life. The aim of the primary and secondary physiotherapeutic prophylaxis is the strengthening of the organism achieved through adequate physical exercise, sports, heliotherapy and air procedures, aquatic therapy and balneotherapy. The medical and social impact of diabetic polyneuropathy and the effect of exercise on the condition call for basic physical rehabilitation routine designed to improve the quality of life of patients with diabetes mellitus.