Background and objectives: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is regarded as a catastrophe of modern age which affecting millions of people around the globe without any age, gender and race discrimination. Due to low survival, late detection, poor prognosis and accelerated mortality rates, this carcinoma has attained profound attention worldwide. In this regard, efforts are being made to identify more specific biomarkers for OSCC in order to increase survival rates. As lipid peroxidation, oxidative, nitrosative and inflammatory stresses are key factors in oral cancer development, but there are still some unresolved issues and challenges for them to be valid, reliable and reproducible biomarkers of OSCC. Keeping in view the said facts, present study is designed to determine associations of various biochemical, inflammatory and oxidative components with OSCC oncology in humans.
Methodology: Lipoxidative profile (AGEs, AOPPs, MDA and NO), antioxidant profile (SOD, GSH, GPx, GR, Vitamin A, Vitamin E and CAT) and inflammatory profile (IL-1, TNF-α, MMP-2, MMP-9 and MMP-11) were biochemically assessed from the venous blood of fifty oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients and twenty healthy controls. The results of all parameters were analyzed by independent sample t-test.
Results: We assessed various biochemical, inflammatory and antioxidative parameters in sera of 50 OSCC patients versus 20 healthy controls. Percent (%) fold increase of MDA, AGEs, AOPPs, IL-1, TNF- α. MMP-2, MMP-9 and MMP-11 were found to be 64.85, 65.52, 68.28, 37.72, 15.97, 9.62, 42.12, 15.42 and 30.35, respectively in carcinoma victims as compared to the controls. Whereas, statistical analyses revealed that GSH, SOD, CAT, Vitamin-A, Vitamin-E, and GRx were significantly (p<0.05) decreased i.e. 73.59, 72.34, 77.57, 26.49, 17.24 and 57.67%, respectively except GPX which was 75.57 times increased in OSCC patients relative to their control counter parts.
Conclusion: The results conclude that lipoxidative profile (AGEs, AOPPs, MDA and NO), antioxidant profile (SOD, GSH, GPx, GR, Vitamin A, Vitamin E and CAT) and inflammatory profile (IL-1, TNF-α, MMP-2, MMP-9 and MMP-11) are the major contributors and play a key role in the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Theranostic management of antioxidative profile may contribute to alleviate the oxidative burden in OSCC patients which seems to be a major aggravating factor in disease progression.