The aim of the current study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of voice training on patients with vocal cord polyps after phonomicrosurgery. The experimental group included 55 patients with vocal cord polyps after phonomicrosurgery that underwent voice training. Laryngostroboscopy, Voice Handicap Index (VHI), and Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI) were applied to evaluate patient voice quality. In the control group, no voice training was imparted to 41 patients after phonomicrosurgery. The inter- and intra-group differences in laryngostroboscopy, VHI, and DSI were compared statistically. No statistical inter-group difference was noted in the mucosal wave and incomplete glottal closure between the two groups, before and after surgery. Further, there was no statistical inter-group difference in the VHI, MPT, Jitter, F0-High, I-Low, and DSI values between the two groups before surgery. Although the VHI value improved in both groups after surgery, its value was lower in the experimental group than in the control group after surgery. Further, the value of Jitter was lower in the experimental group than that in the control group after surgery. After surgery, Jitter, I-Low, and DSI values improved in the experimental group but the control group showed improvements only in the Jitter and DSI values. Laryngostroboscopy, VHI, and DSI can be used to comprehensively assess the voice quality of patients with vocal polyps before and after phonomicrosurgery. Voice training improves the self-evaluated voice quality and vocal stability in patients after phonomicrosurgery.