The objective of this study was to evaluate the magnitude of le ishmaniasis in the study area and to assess the role of demographic and nutritional status in the disease transmis-sion. It was a prospective cohort study on leishmaniasis. It was conducted in 3 villages in West of Sudan. Leishmanin skin test (LST) was assessed as an epidemiological tool in a sub-clinical focus of leishmania in Sudan. The total number of the population in all vil-lages is 332. Methods used in this study, Demographic data were taken and for assessment of nutritional status of children in regard to their type of infection, height and weight were measured using health meter, leishmanin skin test was done to all villagers in first visit. The study was conducted in three field visits, during raining season in 2008 to 2009. In the last two visits, the test was performed to those who had negative LST results in the first visit, so as to detect LST conversion. The results of the positive cases in the three visits were as follows: 42.7%, 46.3% and 51.2%. Almost half of the population had the disease and these subsequently increasing rates indicate continuous transmission. Evaluation the nutritional status which based on weight-for-age and height-for-age The frequency of seriously low weight for age is signifi-cantly higher among the children with clinical visceral leishmaniasis than children with subclinical infection.