Cervical cancer, the most common gynaecological malignancy has been strongly correlated with the infection of human papillomavirus (HPV). Different risk factors exaggerate the onset and progression of cervical cancer to malignant and metastatic state. Recent outcomes for the identification of the molecular pathways involved in cervical cancer provide clues about novel bio or oncogenic markers that are proved to be helpful in monitoring the detection of lesion with a high risk of progression in cytological smears and histological specimens. Sexual health programs and public awareness with developing strategies is the ultimate requirement for combating cervical cancer worldwide. The current review discusses mechanism of HPV that links with cervical cancer, various risk factors for the progression of cervical pathologies including smoking, oral contraceptives and sexual factors as well as diagnostic and screening strategies for cervical cancer.