Introduction: Thalassemia is one of the most important diseases associated with mild microcytic anemia, beta-thalassemia minor. This anemia usually does not require treatment, but it is important to screen for this anemia, especially before marriage, to prevent the birth of a newborn with thalassemia major in parents with β-thalassemia minor. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of thalassemia and iron deficiency anemia in married couples of Ahwaz. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional and descriptive study. 5 cc of blood were prepared in two tubes containing EDTA and Hemoglobin, MCV, MCH, RDW were determined by the System KX21 solenoid and the amount of ferritin, iron, and TIBC was also found in the serum sample. Blood samples from the MCV, MCH low electrophoresis and HbA2 measurements are measured. Results: In this study 16281 couples (32,562) marriage volunteers who were referred to health centers in east and west of Ahwaz were studied. The results showed that the mean of ferritin, MCV and MCH hemoglobin was higher in males than in females. Of the 32,562 people surveyed (5.86%), 1908 had thalassemia minor, of which 966 (5.93%) and 942 (5.79%) were female. In addition, (30.44%), 3041 (10.69%) were 1741 males and (99.7%) were 1,300 women with alpha thalassemia. Of the 32,562 patients (55.1%), 504 had an anemia. Of these, were 284 (74.1%) men and 220 (1.25%) women. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia, thalassemia minor and sickle cell anemia in β-thalassemia carriers were higher among those referring to Ahwaz health center than other cases. On the other hand, in the case of thalassemia continued beta-thalassemia screening of couples in this city can effectively prevent the birth of a newborn with thalassemia major and impose unwanted treatment costs.