This study investigated the effect of a resistance exercise program using elastic bands for the enhancement of immune function and prevention of metabolic disorders, as measured by levels of salivary cortisol (sCor) and salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA). Twenty-two elderly women were divided into an exercise group (77.91 ± 1.41 y) and a control group (78.73 ± 1.51 y). The exercise group performed resistance exercises with an elastic band at a frequency of 3 times/week and 60 min/day for 4 months. Physical fitness and levels of sCor and sIgA compared between before and after the exercise program. A significant increase in the number of lifts made in a lift dumbbell test was observed after the exercise program for both the left (p<0.05) and right (p<0.01) arms, indicating an improvement in upper limb muscular endurance. The number of steps on a 2 min walking in place test was also significantly increased following the exercise program (p<0.01), indicating improved cardiorespiratory function. Levels of sCor and sIgA reduced following the exercise program, but not by a statistical significance. A negative, but not significant, correlation was find between sIgA and sCor levels. In conclusion, the resistance exercise program using elastic bands conducted in our study improved the physical fitness. However, the exercise durations were too short to achieve a meaningful reduction of stress factors and improvements in the immune function. In future research, duration and intensity of exercise is modified to achieve greater improvements in the immune function of elderly people.