Health prophylaxis is a strategic priority in every health care system. This research aims at surveying the prophylactic and medical activity of the elderly and the old. An anonymous survey of 340 people aged 60 and over was conducted in "Haskovo Hospital" for a period of one year. The collected data provide grounds for concluding that health prophylaxis as a direct reflection of health education, and health awareness is not adequately utilized or offered medical activity, which is fundamental to achieving better health, preventing diseases and premature ageing. The percentage of elderly and old people who go through regular preventive medical check-ups is highly unsatisfactory. This puts forward significant problems connected with the organization of prophylaxis, the lack of health motivation, negligence towards prophylaxis, passive and irresponsible attitude.