The purpose of this study was to identify factors that cause periodontal disease in patients with bone disease. The prevalence of periodontal disease in patients with osteoarthritis was investigated in 705 patients with osteoarthritis or osteoporosis among 5,945 adult specimens excluding the under 19 years of age based on the National Health and Nutrition Research Institute. The prevalence of periodontal diseases was found to be significantly different according to general characteristics of some bone disease and oral characteristics. As a result, the prevalence of periodontal disease tended to decrease with increasing income. The education level was similar to that of the undergraduate (43.0%) and the middle school graduate (45.4%), and the prevalence of periodontal disease tended to decrease as the number of high school graduates (31.1%) and college graduates (24.4%). The prevalence of periodontal disease was higher in patients without hypertension (33.8%) than in those without hypertension (46.1%). The prevalence of periodontal disease was higher (28.5%) than that of good oral health (46.8%). The prevalence of periodontal disease was significantly higher (p<0.05). The results of multiple logistic regression analysis were used to examine factors affecting periodontal disease. The results of the multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the higher the incomes, the higher the blood pressure, the better the subjective health condition, respectively. These results suggest that income levels, chronic disease management and use of oral hygiene products are effective in increasing the prevalence of periodontal disease and increasing oral health status in patients with bone disease. Therefore, dental hygienists should make oral health and oral hygiene education suitable for chronic disease management as well as oral health knowledge and make efforts to promote oral health.