Drug-induced gingival enlargement is an iatrogenic condition which is usually not preventable. Certain factors like thorough tooth brushing, proper oral hygiene measures, regular dental flossing and professional care of oral cavity are helpful. Surgical excision of the gingival overgrowth is a treatment of choice but non-surgical methods should be adopted first. More research is needed to investigate measures that can prevent or reduce gingival overgrowth or prevent recurrence. A thorough review of literature reveals that inadequate data exist pertaining to prevalence and treatment options available for iatrogenic gingival hyperplasia. Studies with large number of samples, with statistical analysis, are required to make the data more scientific. Preventive measures have limited value and require regular assessment of patients. Hyperplasia does occur after surgical intervention but percentage of recurrence is not available. Hyperplasia can be managed to a certain extent by withdrawing or changing the medication. However, surgical intervention remains the mainstay of treatment. This paper reviews various aspects of prevalence, pathogenesis and treatment options available to manage drug-induced gingival hyperplasia.