The objective of the present study is to compare the long-term therapeutic efficacy of daytime ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (DAPD) and traditional continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and to find an optimal method for Chinese requiring long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD). A total of 32 inpatients and outpatients receiving PD were randomized into group A (n=16) and group B (n=16). Patients in group A were treated with traditional CAPD, four 8- L exchanges were carried out, and dwelling was performed overnight. Patients in group B were treated with DAPD, 8-L exchange was performed with dwell time of 3~4 h and a dry abdomen at night. Barthel index (BI) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) were employed. The urine volume and ultrafiltration volume were measured. Comparisons of means were performed with analysis of variance among groups and t test or chi square test was employed for comparisons between two groups. There were no marked differences in the residue urine volume, ultrafiltration volume, dialysis adequacy (Kt/V per week; Ccr), CO2CP, K+ and Ga2+ between two groups (P>0.05). However, in the group B, the nutrition status, Hb, P-, iPTH, mean arterial pressure, abdominal infection, number of patients continuously receiving PD, duration of PD, employment rate, BI score and HAMD score were significantly superior to those in the group A (P<0.05) (Table 2, 3). Conclusion: In the presence of same dialysis dosage, long-term DAPD is superior to CAPD in the duration of PD, dialysis adequacy, nutrition status, complication control, blood pressure, abdominal infection control, activity of daily living and depression prevention.