The lipid and lipoprotein profiles of 117 non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients were determined in order to identify and characterize the lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities associated with Nigerian NIDDM patients. 58, age matched apparently healthy individuals served as a control group. The electrophoretic migration pattern of serum lipoproteins on cellulose acetate paper was also studied. Statistically significant increases (p<0.01) were observed in the mean values of Triglycerides, Total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol for both male and female diabetics when compared to their corresponding controls. However, there were no significant differences (p> 0.05) between the mean values of the male diabetics and nondiabetics when compared with their female counterparts. Also, there were statistically significant positive correlations between fasting blood sugar (FBS) and serum Total cholesterol levels (r = 0.4075, p < 0.0001); and FBS and HDL-cholesterol levels (r = 0.2948, p < 0.0001). No distinguishable differences in mobility and number of bands were observed in the lipoprotein electrophoresis pattern of both the diabetics and control subjects. However, electrophoresis showed increased lipoprotein fractions in the diabetics. Significant positive correlation between fasting blood sugar and lipid fractions suggest that the duration and severity of diabetes mellitus may increase the risk of atheroma.