In this study, we combined an Arduino microcontroller with an Android-based smartphone to develop an intelligent healthcare system and provide elderly patients with the comfort of medical services at home. We developed a JAVA-based application with a built-in automatic warning system that can provide real-time, dynamic detection of vital signs. Furthermore, we developed an improved electrocardiogram R-peak detection method by using the artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm. The system can identify high blood pressure, low blood pressure, fever, and tachycardia bradycardia. The proposed system sends text messages to the elderly patient’s family and doctor in case of an unusual event. Because previous research suggests that blood pressure can be more accurately determined when measured twice a day, the system can set an alarm to remind the user to record their blood pressure. The results revealed that the ABC algorithm can rapidly determine the parameters for R-peak detection and is highly accurate. In addition, the results of clinical trials reveal that the proposed system can achieve a high level of accuracy in identifying and detecting unusual events. The proposed system not only saves medical resources but also enables elderly people to care for themselves, thereby promoting their health.