Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is loss of three or more consecutive pregnancies during first trimester of pregnancy. The etiology in most of the recurrent miscarriages is unknown. The main cause of recurrent miscarriage is the abnormal karyotype. Apart from this, number of factors are responsible like defects in maternal endometrium, placenta, and autoimmune malfunctions. Additionally exaggerated immune response by the cytokines seems to play a crucial role in the termination of pregnancies. Analysis of serum cytokines in women with recurrent pregnancy loss would add to better and clear understanding of the role of cytokines in miscarriage. The study enrolled 60 pregnant women aged 26-48 y; the RPL group comprised of 30 women with first trimester miscarriage and the control group included 30 women with first trimester successful pregnancy with no history of miscarriage. Serum cytokines were measured by Milliplex Luminex with XMAP (Multianalyte profiling) technology. Cytokines like tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, interleukin-8 increased and interleukin-6 decreased significantly (p<0.001) in RPL group compared to control. There was no significant correlation between cytokines and fertility hormones like follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone whereas interferon-γ was strongly correlated with luteinizing hormone and prolactin in miscarriage group. Our data suggests that cytokines the immunological mediators are major determining factors for poor pregnancy outcomes. Though fertility hormones play role in occurrence and maintenance of pregnancy, termination of pregnancy could be due to altered immune response and there is no correlation of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukins 6 and 8 with follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and prolactin hormones.