Premature birth is a serious medical, social and economic problem. Its consequences are multiple health complications leading to high neonatal mortality worldwide. Respiratory insufficiency and surfactant deficiency significantly increase the risk of developing Hyaline Membrane Disease (HMD) and other forms of Respiratory Distress (RDS). These are the most common causes of death in premature babies. In prenatal and neonatal medicine, new and adaptive prophylaxis is being implemented to reduce the risk of death of premature babies and reduce the development of health complications. The goal of effective corticosteroid prophylaxis is to reduce mortality, reduce complications in prenatal new-borns, and shorten their stay in neonatal and intensive units respectively. A retrospective study of 167 preterm infants was conducted, of which 89 (53.3%) had prophylaxis with dexamethasone. In 25 (15%) of preterm infants, there was a Hyaline Membrane Disease (HMD) and 101 (60.5%) developed other forms of Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS). The results obtained show that the incidence of HMD in preterm infants is mediated by the early gestational age and advanced age of the mother, and decreased by corticosteroid therapy.