This study aimed to determine the distribution of pathogens and drug-resistance of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in cases of Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP). A total of 128 CAP patients were selected for pathogen detection. Testing was performed for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Legionella urinary antigens, and bacterial sputum culture was performed. Throat swab samples were taken from all patients for culture and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) testing for M. pneumoniae and viruses. Paired sera were used to test for M. pneumoniae antibodies. Of 128 cases, 79 tested positive for pathogens. M. pneumoniae was the most common pathogen, with a positive rate of 35.16% (45 cases), followed by viruses, with a positive rate of 30.16% (38 cases); bacteria accounted for a small proportion, with a positive rate of 13.28% (17 cases). M. pneumoniae infection played an important role in CAP, but the proportion of viral pneumonia was also significant. The rate of M. pneumoniae resistance to macrolides was 100% and should be considered when preparing the treatment plan.